There are a number of prerequisites for the formation of a system for making state decisions on the designated import. In particular, the following:
First Ukraine has a well-developed defense industry as it has become much more active and grew during the Russian Federation's war against Ukraine at 2014-2019. The procurement of such weapons, technologies and materials produced (developed) by domestic enterprises severely undermines the development of the national defense industry, and in some cases, destroys the prospects of entire groups of companies engaged in the implementation of specific tasks for the development and preparation of new weapons.
The second It is possible to fully agree with the General Staff of the Armed Forces that some weapons that can not be put up by the domestic defense industry in the short run can be imported. However, so far, during the implementation of import defense and dual-purpose procurement, no substantiation and analytical support of the projects have been carried out. For example, when purchasing French helicopters for the Ministry of Internal Affairs or the Turkish drone drone aircraft complex for the Armed Forces. At the same time, making decisions in the "manual mode", without justification and information support, can substantially damage the image of the authorities in the eyes of society, and in some cases, the international image of the state (in particular, according to unofficial data, the American side criticized the purchase of a batch of French helicopters, given the volume of military technical assistance to Ukraine).
Third Among other things, unreasonable and unwarranted imports, in the case of critical nomenclatures of weapons-grade equipment, carry security risks, that is, access to critical information to an enemy (hostile or potentially hostile to the state).
Fourth Unplanned imports, in addition, in the absence of a system, the responsible authority within the executive branch destroys the planning ideology of the General Staff of the Armed Forces and the whole system of rearmament of the state. This situation deprives OPK enterprises of the state of planning their own developments, expansion of production, etc., including, with the use of their working capital.
The above factors are aggravated by the fact that the country does not have an assessment of the state and readiness of the defense industry to meet the needs of the security and defense sector in armaments, military and special technology. Such an assessment has never been carried out - and there is still no full information on the available production capacity of all forms of ownership, all available technologies, the degree of dependence of the country on imports, etc. The defense-industrial review and inventory of available technologies have not been carried out, and even now there are no methods of conducting it.. It is expected that the first attempt of such analysis can be carried out only this year thanks to the organization 14 May 2019 on the basis of the National Technical University of Ukraine "Kiev Polytechnic Institute named after Igor Sikorsky" (NTUU KPI) for the first time a separate open competition of defense technologies.
Consequently, in the context of the development of views on improving the system of rearmament of the Ukrainian Defense Forces, the issue of establishing a clear and transparent system for the adoption of state decisions on the import of anti-personnel weapons was of particular importance. In order to analyze this issue and prepare proposals, the non-governmental Expert Council with the participation of People's Deputies of the Verkhovna Rada, specialists of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, DK "Ukroboronprom" and non-governmental organizations - League of Defense Enterprises of Ukraine, Center for Army, Conversion and Disarmament Studies (CDAAC) and information and consulting company Defense Express, - has considered the possibilities of determining the optimal systemic approach to decision-making in the field of import of weapons. The Expert Council has reached the following conclusions:
First. Over-the-counter import of weapons is in most cases a risk, and the presence of domestic productions (technologies) destroys the defense industry of Ukraine and is unacceptable in view of the threat to the high-tech sector of the economy. Situations in which there is a need to obtain some weapons that in the short term can not be put up in the Armed Forces by the domestic defense industry, require clear justification and informational and analytical support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create a system for making state decisions in this area.
Second. Mechanisms of scientific and analytical substantiation of decisions on the projects of import of weapons are to be constructed in the state. The justification should include the following parts: political, security, economic, technological, technical, the issue of the inclusion of the offset part in the Ukraine's anti-personnel supply program. The offset part of the transaction is mandatory (within the limits of a certain amount of procurement of equipment). Experts in the field of application (exploitation) of weapons and equipment, as well as scientists, designers, and state experts should be involved in the examination, and in the most resonant cases, non-state experts and even public hearings (without mentioning information containing state or commercial secrets - from guiding the results of examination of the relevant structures that have access to state secrets).
Third. Since the adoption of state decisions on the import of weapons of mass destruction of the states must be implemented within the framework of the common military-technical and defense-industrial policy, the formation of a central executive body (CEB), which may provide for appropriate professional structures for conducting expert assessments (for example, the Council of General Designers , Scientific and Technical Council, other, including non-government temporarily involved structures). The Central Executive Office should be subordinate to the Deputy Prime Minister for Defense (VOI) matters. The formation of the CEB is foreseen in the 2018 year by the Law of Ukraine on National Security.
The key element of decision making by the CEBs should be the predictable definition of the priorities of rearmament (in accordance with the threats and needs of the defense forces) and the transparent and systematic planning that Ukraine will produce on its own, which weapons and equipment - in conjunction with a foreign partner - to procure. Decision making as a result of lobbying projects by different groups should be impossible.
According to the experts of the Central Statistical Bureau, the creation of a CEB in Ukraine can be realized in several stages.
In particular, at the first stage, the status and empowerment of the existing profile department of the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade (headed by the Deputy Minister) could be strengthened - which has already been implemented within the framework of the implementation of the Decree of the President of Ukraine No. 79 / 2019 from March 15
The following is proposed:
- completion of the reform of the State Enterprise "Ukroboronprom", during which the concern loses its administrative functions and forms, on the basis of already defined divisions of specialized defense holdings as independent legal entities;
- Transfer of enterprises from the sphere of management of DK "Ukroboronprom" to the sphere of management of the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine.
The final stage is the creation of a new Ministry of Industrial Policy (on defense issues), which will carry out, among other things, the following functions:
- development and implementation of state defense-industrial policy;
- coordination and control over the activities of the national defense industry;
- creation of new models of equipment;
- restoration of machine tools;
- creation of new intergovernmental agreements in addition to existing ones;
- the acquisition and sale of licenses and technologies;
- Support to export-oriented enterprises;
- coordination of scientific and technical research in the field of applied sciences.
It is also worth examining the issue of expediency of subordination to the newly created Ministry, including enterprises of chemical, metallurgical, machine tool, etc., which are involved in the implementation of state defense orders and other orders and contracts.
The creation of a profile ministry implies responsibility for the implementation of defense and industrial policy and the development of a national defense industry, including the political forces that nominate a minister.